Solar power is promising
The frontier of the subject bookmark 0: Year 1. Four Docks: Spearhead Dongxuetou Line Telephone: V said that undergraduates play with carbon atoms, building blocks carbon atoms is very magical, in addition to the basic substances that constitute our lives, but also can form a variety of forms of structure. Scientists first know that carbon isotopes are graphite and diamond, and later scientists discovered other structures of carbon atoms. The study of these new structures has become a hotspot in the field of nanotechnology research.
Fuller structure carbon is a kind of nano material, also known as carbon 60 or carbon cloth base ball. It is composed of 60 carbon atoms. Like a football, it has a hollow structure and is only 1 nanometer in diameter. In 1970, it was a Japanese scientist, Daze Yingji. The prophecy was discovered in 1985 by three scientists, Professor Harrick Roto of the University of Sussex in the United Kingdom and Professor Smolley of the United States. Prior to this, the allotropes of carbon were known to be graphite and diamond. Carbon 60 is the allotrope of the third carbon, named after the late famous scientist Richard Buckminster Fuller. It has extremely specific electrochemical properties, adsorbed gas properties, and mechanical and optical properties, and is highly valued by the scientific community all over the world. At present, scientists from all over the world are trying to apply it to the industrial fields of benzyl medicine, energy, chemistry, environmental protection, electronics, cosmetics and machinery.
Sakamoto Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Ltd. adopted the "combustion method" to develop high-volume production of Fuller structure carbon technology, which greatly reduced the manufacturing cost and greatly promoted the application of this nano material in various fields. The company applies the technology accumulated in the manufacture of carbon, and adopts a method of mixing benzene or toluene with oxygen to develop a production technology for the continuous manufacture of Fuller structure carbon. The key to this technology is to control the "fire", the combustion temperature. Compared with the electrode discharge method currently used, Mitsubishi Chemical's combustion method is suitable for continuous production, which greatly reduces the cost, and the price per gram can be reduced from the current tens of dollars to tens of cents. The company plans to build a plant that produces 100 tons of this material per month. By 2004, the annual output could reach 1,500 tons, which is 10,000 times of the current total worldwide production. - Similar to Fuller's structural carbon, carbon nanotubes are also the focus of research in the nano-field. Carbon nanotubes were discovered by Japanese scientist Iijima Chengo in 1991 and are tiny tubular structures composed of carbon atoms. Japan is currently a leader in this research field. Recently, Professor Kuroha, a professor at Kyushu University in Japan, successfully made carbon nanotubes into a ring shape. It is believed that this kind of cyclic carbon nanotubes has new physical properties and deserves further study. The professor processed hard carbon nanotubes into a ring in an organic solution. After continuously adjusting the concentration of the organic solution, he finally connected the ends of the 1.6 micron long carbon nanotubes to form a ring shape with a diameter of about 0.5 micron.
Scientists around the world are actively researching and developing carbon nanotubes, such as electron guns used as hydrogen storage materials and new thin display devices. It is believed that the analysis of the properties of the ring-shaped carbon nanotubes can open up new uses for it.
The basic manufacturing method of carbon nanotubes is to use an arc discharge method, that is, discharge between two graphite electrodes to evaporate the graphite electrode to form carbon nanotubes. However, this method is very inefficient and therefore cannot be mass-produced to meet demand. Low-cost, high-quality, high-volume manufacturing of carbon nanotubes is one of the top priorities for Japanese companies in the nanotechnology field, and recent progress has been made.
Showa Denko has been studying the catalytic gas phase decomposition process since 1998. It uses a reaction furnace with a high temperature of iq Celsius, using cobalt or iron as a catalyst to decompose hydrocarbon benzene, and carbon molecules adhere to the particles of the catalyst to grow into carbon nanotubes. Currently, the company has produced experimental equipment that can be continuously produced, producing 200 grams of carbon nanotubes in one hour. At present, this is considered to be the most promising manufacturing technology for mass production. The method developed by Osaka Gas Company is to use magnesium as a reducing agent to defluorinate the polytetrafluoroethylene resin to form a trivalent carbon intermediate. As a supply source of carbon atoms, it is excited by electron beam or the like by heating under vacuum. The role of making carbon nanotubes. By changing the intensity of electron beam excitation, it is also possible to control the length, diameter and shape of carbon nanotubes, and the yield can reach 50%. This carbon nanotube is suitable for the manufacture of hydrogen storage materials. The company plans to reach a practical level within three years. The method adopted by Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. is a laser irradiation method in which a carbon material mixed with a metal is irradiated with a laser to obtain a carbon nanotube. The advantage is that the product has high purity and good quality, and the disadvantage is that it is difficult to carry out mass production.
It is estimated that in 2000, the global nanomaterials market alone reached 75 billion US dollars. The German Ministry of Science and Technology expects that the nanotechnology market will reach 1.44 trillion US dollars in 2010. Therefore, although the international academic community generally believes that nanotechnology truly penetrates people's work. It still takes two to three decades in life, but countries around the world have greatly strengthened research in this field, especially the leading transcripts of many projects in the field of nanotechnology, and have strengthened research in this field. A series of achievements made by Sakamoto in the field of carbon nanotechnology research has undoubtedly enhanced its competitiveness in this field.
Solar power is great for MU chips, so you have nowhere to hide. In today's information age, everyone will unconsciously leave their own "traces" through electronic means. Every time you apply for a credit card, every time you use an ATM, every time you call, every time you log on to the Internet, people are actually drawing their own electronic "portraits", and this portrait will become clearer as you move. .
Maybe you think that what underwear to wear every day, how much cash to spend, how to live everyday, is purely a private matter, the computer can not track. However, Japan's Hitachi recently introduced a + gadget called "MU Chip", which may make many of the privacy and things that belonged to the past become no longer a secret.
Hitachi’s chip is the world’s smallest wireless identification device. Its area is only. 4 square millimeters, thin enough to fit into paper or textile. It can store 128 bits of information, and a set of special identification codes can be transmitted to the recognizer within a distance of 30 cm. Although the MU chip is not very powerful, experts believe that because of its small size, the role cannot be underestimated.
The identification chip can be installed on many everyday items, but so far its size and production cost have been the main reasons for manufacturers to be discouraged. But the chip made by Hitachi is small and cheap, and the final cost is estimated to be only 26 cents. The original intention of the chip was to prevent it, because it can be embedded in paper or woven clothing, and it will not be damaged when folded. If equipped with a bar code scanning protocol, the chip can provide the price and official proof of the product, so that the counterfeiters can not act rashly.
Hitachi’s MU chip has received extensive attention. After the company announced the launch of this new product, it immediately established the MU solution company to be responsible for the marketing of the product. So far, the company has received more than 400 phone calls, and it has established partnerships with more than 40 companies around the world. Hitachi claims that the chip will be available in the near future, with sales expected to reach $145 million by 2005. The person in charge of the company believes that the MU chip market has broad prospects, from securities to retail and other departments, all have their use. The famous Gap clothing chain in the United States is very optimistic about the market potential of this chip. I hope that this chip can be woven into the trademark of the garment, so that as long as the consumer buys a pair of jeans or a jacket of the company, the information will be The information base of the company. And those luxury brands, such as Gucci or Chanel, can use this chip to suppress the proliferation of imitations. - Although reading this chip now requires special equipment, it will enable long-distance wireless digital transmission sooner or later. At that time, by embedding it in banknotes, the central bank can monitor the circulation of money and know where people spend money, just as they do with credit cards. Using this identification chip on valuables can also be used to easily track thieves or find places to be found. Of course, the MU chip may also be Pandora's box. Some experts worry that its widespread use may cause people's every move to be under surveillance, thus endangering the privacy of individuals. (Xiaoli>Meyika Middle School is located in a valley two hours drive from Durban, South Africa. Due to lack of electricity, the students here can only read by candlelight, and only 30% of the students who have finally obtained a diploma for many years. But since the spring of 2000, everything has changed. With the help of international donor agencies, Meyerka High School has installed solar power equipment, students have used computers, can swim online, and the school’s graduation rate has also risen. To 70%, some people even prepare to go to college. The principal of this middle school lamented: "I never thought that solar energy allows us to do it all."
A market research company in California said that the total value of the global solar market in 2000 has reached $3 billion, of which about 40%, or almost $1.2 billion, came from the rural market. For example, in the United States, solar power has become the most environmentally friendly supplement to existing grid power generation, especially in rural areas, where demand for solar equipment is particularly urgent. It is estimated that in the coming period, some of the world's largest companies, such as Shell Group, Siemens, British Petroleum, Sanyo Electric, Sharp and Sakamoto Kyocera, will maintain an annual revenue growth of around 20% in the solar market. By 2005, solar market sales in remote rural areas around the world will reach $2.5 billion.
Xiaoli Solar Power is providing carbon for the 2 billion people living in remote areas and unable to use the power supply network. These people currently account for 30% of the world's population. Many of these 2 billion people are able to pay for electricity. Spend $5 to $10 a month on buying kerosene for lighting. But if you spend this money on solar power, people can enjoy it, not just lighting.
According to a research report released by the Israel Petroleum and Energy Research Institute, the cost of solar power generation has dropped significantly from 20 years ago. Twenty years ago, the cost of producing 1 watt of solar power was $80, and today's production costs are only $7. Although solar power generation is still much more expensive than renewable energy such as wind energy and tidal energy, it should be developed as a new alternative energy source that is clean, safe, high-energy and widely used. In addition, the device that uses solar power to generate electricity is relatively simple and fixed. For remote areas, even if there is no shortage of technicians, there is no need to worry about its maintenance problems.
The main obstacle to the use of solar power is that although the life of solar panels averages 20 years, its initial one-time investment is relatively large, and for a small ordinary family, it needs at least 500 dollars. For many rural residents, this is something they can't afford. The main solutions currently solved by countries are the active support of the government and the sponsorship of international institutions such as large enterprises, the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme.
The Middle East is rich in solar energy resources. The internationally renowned energy company BP has a special liking for the rich solar energy resources in the Middle East. After investing 200 million U.S. dollars in the development of solar energy in this region in 2000, the investment scale was expanded to 1 billion last year. Dollar. Shell has extensive experience in operating rural electrification projects in South Africa, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and India. In July last year, Shell Renewable Energy signed an agreement with China Xinjiang New Energy Co., Ltd. to provide home solar energy systems to 78,000 households (nearly 320,000 people) in remote areas of Xinjiang. The head of Shell said that the rural area is a market with great potential, and its share of Shell's solar business will increase as long as there is a corresponding package of services and necessary support. Currently, 10% of the company's sales come from the rural market.
The 0 kW solar power system began operating in California. California is full of sunshine all year round. Its Lamita County is one of the most active areas for promoting solar energy in the United States. In recent years, it has been installing solar power systems on public buildings, and now saves 30% of electricity every year. In the energy crisis and Under the pressure of rising electricity tariffs, some cities in California are also actively promoting solar energy. Governments at all levels have introduced different subsidy schemes. For example, in some small cities in the Los Angeles area, residents install a set of 20 solar panels on the roof. Equipment, the government subsidizes $6,000 in one lump sum. Experts believe that compared with electricity and gas, solar energy is inexhaustible, inexhaustible, non-polluting, no noise, no waste gas emissions, and has great significance for environmental protection. In areas with abundant sun resources, using solar energy as an alternative energy source is the most economical and feasible way.